Serg Upstart

SIMPLE SOLUTIONS TO THE COMPLEX MYSTERIES OF THE UNIVERSE

serg.upstart@gmail.com    RUSSIAN Use of materials of this site on other Internet resources and in printed publications is possible only with the consent of the author and with the obligatory reference to the source

 1. 1. Introduction. 2. Does the gravitational field have mass? 3. How the gravitational field bends space. 4. The system of Maxwell equations for a universal gravitational-electromagnetic field. 5. The problem of the gravitational field of a point mass taking into account the mass of the field itself. 6. WHY AND AT THE EXPENSE OF WHAT ENERGY THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS.  5. WHY AND AT THE EXPENSE OF WHAT ENERGY THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS. Almost a century ago, Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding and that the rate at which galaxies move away from each other is proportional to the distance between them. В 1998 в процессе наблюдения за вспышками сверхновых в дальних галактиках было сделано еще более шокирующее открытие, In 1998 an even more shocking discovery was made while observing supernova outbreaks in distant galaxies, This accelerated expansion of the Universe was attributed to the action of some "dark energy", which grows and can even tear all the atoms in the Universe apart. In this Chapter, I will try to explain what "dark energy"is, that there is nothing supernatural in it and that everything happens in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Energy. Try deal with question "why expands universe" and where source of energy its enlargement. Consider a system of two galaxies  A and B, located at a distance of R. Recall the well-known formula from nuclear physics for the mass of the nucleus, which is the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons minus the binding energy divided by squared the speed of light, and write a similar formula for the mass of a system of two galaxies. In this formula, Ma and Mb are the masses of galaxies A and B respectively, Ea and Eb are the internal gravitational bond energies in galaxies respectively, G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of light. The last term in this formula expresses the gravitational energy of the bond between galaxies, it is written on the basis of the classical Newtonian model of gravity. The law of conservation of energy requires that if the galaxies contract, that is, the gravitational binding energies of Ea and Eb increase, then it must be it is compensated by decrease of gravitational energy of communication between galaxies that can be made only by increasing distance between galaxies R. Let's simplify the problem by assuming that both galaxies are exactly the same, that is, they have the same mass and internal gravitational energy connection they have are identical and equally change in time. Then the above formula will be simplified to the following form Next, we write the formula for the balance of gravitational binding energy for two values of E1 > E2 of their bond are identical and equally change in time. Then the above formula will be simplified to the following form where get denote and, in the end we get From the obtained equation it is seen that if the increase in gravitational binding energy in galaxies would be constant, then their rate of flight would be proportional to the square of the distance between them. While in Hubble's law it is proportional to only the first degree of distance. We find an equation for changing the rate of increase of the gravitational binding energy at which would be satisfied Hubble law. Based on Hubble's law we write the differential equation Solving this differential equation we find a function describing the change of distance in time Then the speed and acceleration will be described by the following functionsи  From the obtained equations we find that in order to fulfill Hubble's law, the rate of increase of gravitational energy the bonds of matter in galaxies should decrease exponentially 